|Technologies||solar systems grid extension improved cookstoves (ICS)|
|EnDev 1|| July 2005 - |
|EnDev 2|| April 2009 - |
|Partners||Ministère en charge de l'Energie (MEDER) / Agence Sénégalaise de l'Electrification Rurale (ASER) / Agence Nationale des Energies Renouvelables (ANER) / Agence pour l'Economie et la Maîtrise de l'Energie (AEME) / Direction en charge des Combustibles Domestiques|
|Outcomes (12/2017)||Access to electricity:
Access to modern cooking energy:
Access to modern energy services:
Figures reflect the non-adjusted sum of EnDev 1 and EnDev 2 outcomes. Read more in EnDev's Monitoring
Senegal’s energy consumption is predominantly sourced from biomass (58%) and petroleum products (38%), with the rest stemming from coal and renewables for electricity generation (hydro, solar). Biomass is predominantly used for cooking, mostly in rural areas. The household sector is responsible for 54% of the total energy consumption, which again is predominantly used for cooking, for which firewood (58%) and charcoal (26%) are the most important sources of energy, while in urban areas also liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is widespread. For example, 90% of households in Dakar normally cook on LPG - though supply is not always reliable in which case they fall back on charcoal.
The electrification rate of the country is relatively high compared to surrounding countries with 75% in urban areas and 17% in rural areas, resulting in 45% nationwide. However the government's target to achieve 50% rural electrification by 2012 has not nearly been achieved. Not only may the objective have been overambitious, the large gap between the objective and the actual realisation also mirrors underlying obstacles, like a lack of regulatory framework and weak financial structures.
The potential for renewable electricity generation is large: solar, wind and hydro each offer good possibilities. Although today hardly 10% of electricity generation is based on renewables, the potential has been clearly recognised and this share is expected to rise in the coming years.
For more information see energypedia.
The EnDev Senegal project comprises two major components: improved cookstoves (ICS) and rural electrification. The first component promotes improved cookstoves by establishing a commercial supply chain and creating the basic structure for dynamic and sustainable markets for ICSs. The country project provides training for stove producers in techniques and tools, thus helps transitioning from artisanal production to semi-industrial production. EnDev is also responsible for quality control of ICS. Further support measures are: establishing and supporting of a variety of sales structures, collaborating with micro finance institutes, reanimating the union of whitesmiths, addressing energy for cooking in the social infrastructure sector, and improving the charcoal production chain.
In ist second component, EnDev Senegal facilitates access to electricity in rural areas, thereby decreasing reliance on the already overburdened national grid. Based on an assessment of the ability and willingness to pay for electricity, EnDev identified interventions to serve different demands of households and social institutions. Electricity is provided by village grids (PV-diesel hybrid) or by individual solar home systems (in smaller villages) based on technical and economic criteria. The households pay on a fee-for-service basis. In each case private enterprises are responsible for installing and maintaining the system in order to ensure correct and long-lasting use. Of the hardware cost, 70% is subsidised by EnDev while the remainder is contributed by the operator and the municipality concerned.
Specific activities for the electrification of rural areas include developing the technical package (mini-grids), identifying and selecting target communities, sensitising and mobilising communities (their own contribution), tendering and supervising hardware installation, and supporting the tender and selection of the private operator. EnDev further provides the private operators with business and technical training, rehabilitates existing but non-operational systems as well as trains personnel for operation and maintenance and business procedures.
The ICSs supported by EnDev prove to save 47% of firewood compared to a traditional three-stone fire. Therefore, firewood savings are substantial: almost 27 kg are saved in every household per week after the introduction of the ICS – even taken into account that traditional stoves like three-stones are still used as an additional way of food preparation. Impact assessments showed that firewood savings are equally highly appreciated as time savings concerning firewood collection and – if firewood is bought – also monetary savings. Another highly appreciated aspect was the reduction in smoke emissions that lead to a significantly lower rate of respiratory diseases among ICS owners.
Before gaining access to electricity, kerosene lamps, candles and torches were used as lighting devices. Mainly women are responsible for buying candles, kerosene or batteries, a burden that they are now relieved off: “It was very tiresome to go buy candles every day. Now, I don’t have to make that walk [to the local shop] every day.” - Ndèye (27)