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Solar Power, Improved Cooking

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Technologies solar products Improved Cookstoves (ICS)
EnDev 1 September 2005 -
September 2009
EnDev 2 December 2012 -
June 2019
Partners Ministry of Natural Resources, Energy and Mining / private sector / national network of NGOs active in stove producer training
Implementers GIZ, MAEVE
Outcomes (12/2017) Access to electricity:
  • 50,400 people

Access to modern cooking energy:

  • 221,600 people

Access to modern energy services:

  • 160 social institutions
  • 0 SMEs

Figures reflect the non-adjusted sum of EnDev 1 and EnDev 2 outcomes. Read more in EnDev's Monitoring

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Energy Situation

Given its relatively small land-mass, large (and growing) population and heavy dependence on fuel wood, Malawi is an increasingly energy-stressed country. A staggering 99% of household energy is supplied by biomass. This, with increasing population growth, is exerting significant pressure on the country’s forest resources, leading to forest degradation and deforestation. 87% of the population uses firewood and 8% charcoal to satisfy their thermal energy needs. Less than 7% of the 14 million people are connected to the national grid. Electricity and gas are only intermittently available and considered to be expensive for cooking.

Therefore firewood and charcoal are the major cooking fuels, even in the urban areas. Unlike in many neighbouring countries, firewood is still available in all four major cities of Malawi (Lilongwe, Blantyre, Zomba and Mzuzu) as well as in the district capitals. Firewood provides over 50% of the urban cooking fuel and nearly 100% in the rural areas. Even in urban areas, firewood is mainly used in open three-stone-fires. Therefore there is a potential to introduce convenient affordable portable firewood stoves in urban areas and shift eventually some parts of the cooking activities currently done with charcoal to a less primary-energy intensive fuel source, meaning un-carbonised firewood.

For more information see energypedia.


The overall project strategy is to enhance a financially sustainable market for improved cook stoves in urban and peri-urban areas of Malawi, by strengthening the supply and demand side.

On the supply side, EnDev Malawi enhances the capacities of craftsmen producing the energy efficient cookstove “Chitetezo Mbaula” by EnDev-ProBEC. EnDev Malawi links production and demand by acting as an interface between predominantly rural, informal small scale producers and urban, formal sales outlet chains and organising transportation of stoves to urban areas. Thus, EnDev facilitates the creation of a sustainable distribution system for fuel-saving firewood stoves in the major urban and peri-urban areas of Malawi.

In the first half of 2015, a results-based financing (RBF) scheme has started to support access to modern cooking energy for poor and vulnerable groups, especially aimed at rural areas. RBF incentives will be paid to rural sales agents after results are achieved, i.e. stoves sold, thus stimulating a rural ICS market.

Further Information

The factsheet on this country project is available for download here.

For more information on the RBF project, visit also Concern Universal's website.