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Solar Power, Biogas, Improved Cooking

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Technologies picoPV biogas digesters improved cookstoves (ICS)
EnDev 1 October 2005 -
June 2009
EnDev 2 June 2009 -
June 2018
Partners Ministry of Energy / Ministry of Agriculture / Ministry of Education / Ministry of Health / NGOs / Private Sector Players / Church Organisations
Implementers GIZ, SNV
Outcomes (12/2016) Access to electricity:
  • 179,000 people

Access to modern cooking energy:

  • 5,090,000 people

Access to modern energy services

  • 1,300 social institutions
  • 700 SMEs

Figures reflect the non-adjusted sum of EnDev 1 and EnDev 2 outcomes. Read more in EnDev's Monitoring


CALL 1: EnDev through CLASP supports the 2016-2017 Global LEAP Awards for Outstanding Off-Grid Refrigerator Competition to identify super-efficient, high quality off-grid refrigerators. The Global LEAP Awards competition will recognise best-in-class off-grid refrigerators, and offer cash prizes to recognise and incentivise innovation in off-grid refrigeration technology and design. The competition is affiliated with the EnDev funded Global LEAP+RBF – a high-impact bulk procurement incentive scheme designed to drive and demonstrate scale in the off-grid appliance market – and commercially-available Winners and Finalists of the competition will be eligible to participate in that programme’s upcoming rounds in Bangladesh and Kenya.

CALL 2: In its 2nd round of results-based financing (RBF), two projects are implemented that will provide financial incentives (grants) to beneficiaries. These beneficiaries include financial institutions, such as banks, MFIs and SACCOs, as well as manufacturers/distributors of pico solar products and pellet manufacturers in Kenya. They are explicitly invited to express their interest. The deadline for the PV component has been extended until 31/10/2016. Find more information about the application process here. Templates for expressions of interest (EoI) and for proposals can be found here and here.


Energy Situation

Traditional biomass accounts for 97% of Kenya’s domestic energy requirement and is mainly used for cooking. The country’s firewood demand is about 3.5 million tonnes per year, while its annual supply is only around 1.5 million tonnes. This deficit has led to high rates of deforestation resulting in desertification, land degradation, droughts and famine. Especially in rural areas, the majority of the population lives in poverty and cannot afford modern energy services. Besides lacking electricity (access rate in rural areas is <25%), people still use energy inefficient three-stone-fires for cooking.

For more information see energypedia.


EnDev Kenya is composed of three core components: stoves, solar and biogas. The first component facilitates promotion of improved cookstoves (ICS) in the Transmara, western, lower eastern, and central districts. EnDev Kenya supports individuals, institutions or groups involved in the market of energy saving technology by providing training in technical and business skills. For more effectiveness in the promotion and uptake of improved cookstoves, EnDev Kenya cooperates with a growing number of government departments, non-governmental organisations and private sector actors.

ICSs are much more efficient and resource-friendly than traditional stoves. If the ICSs are used correctly they save 40-60% of the firewood, compared to traditional three-stone fires. Training how to use and maintain the ICS properly is therefore essential and part of EnDev's capacity building approach. The money saved from using the energy-efficient cookstoves is used to cover immediate needs such as food, school materials, medicine, clothes, soap etc. Time saved from not having to collect firewood and faster cooking times is used for farming, income-generating activities, and housework. By applying a results-based funding (RBF) scheme, EnDev establishes financing mechanisms to provide loans that link financial institutions, SMEs, and last-mile entrepreneurs with customers.

The second component of EnDev Kenya facilitates access to quality pico PV systems in rural areas. EnDev Kenya establishes and strengthens sustainable and commercially viable supply models, particularly by setting up last mile distribution channels, building capacity of last mile entrepreneurs (LMEs), awareness creation at different levels, consumer education, and access to finance. For this component too, EnDev works with an RBF approach in order to provide affordable credit schemes for Last Mile Entrepreneurs (LMEs) and end-users.  Further, EnDev Kenya promotes solar-hybrid mini grids together with ProSolar. The project supports the mini grid sector in policy negotiation, capacity building and project preparatory activities, and offers financial support through a RBF scheme managed by a local bank.

For the third component, biogas, the objective is building capacity of local companies, demonstrating technical and economic viability of power generation from biogas technology, focussing on small and medium agro-based enterprises.


The Kenyan stove sector is developing rapidly with upcoming new actors (private as well as public) and new technology. The stove business created employment in the production, marketing and installation sector. Particularly women gain independence as they engage in ICS activities. The use of ICS leads to better working conditions, less exposure to smoke and therefore improved health. Due to improved cookstoves in Kenya, about half a million tonnes of firewood and over 572,000 tonnes of CO2 are saved annually.

For its solar component, EnDev identified and trained new LMEs. Together with its partners, the project built 13 technical training institutions to provide training for solar technicians, and has supported a total of 450 active LMEs in promotional and consumer education events. EnDev Kenya is also in its first stage to implement the RBF parts of the component which started in 2015.

For its third component, the project has successfully developed two standard designs for biogas plants: one for small scale power generation of between 8-20kW and another one with up to 100kW power output. Both are adapted to local conditions.

Stove installer Lydia Wangui Kimany from Bibironi: “Until 2009, I was an ordinary farmer struggling to nourish my family. Now, with my new job as an installer of clean stoves, I earn enough money to pay for food, school tuition and can even repair my house!“

Further Information

The factsheet on this country project is available for download here.