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Solar Power, Hydro Power, Biogas

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Technologies hydro power solar systems

biogas digesters

EnDev 1 October 2005 -
December 2009
EnDev 2 May 2009 -
December 2018
Partners Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (MEMR) - Directorate General New Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation (DGNREEC)
Implementers GIZ, HIVOS, SNV
Outcomes (12/2017) Access to electricity:
  • 258,000 people

Access to modern cooking energy:

  • 37,000 people

Access to modern energy services:

  • 3,200 social institutions
  • 2,000 SMEs

Figures reflect the non-adjusted sum of EnDev 1 and EnDev 2 outcomes. Read more in EnDev's Monitoring

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Energy Situation

Electric energy is in short supply throughout Indonesia. About 50% of the population does not have access to modern energy services. The country is scattered with non-electrified villages located in sparsely populated, rural areas. People in these areas rely on energy from biomass, diesel engines, kerosene lamps, batteries and candles with all their disadvantages: high costs, environmental pollution, higher risk of threat to health etc.

Around 25 million households in Indonesia rely on biomass as their primary cooking fuel. The majority of these are located in rural areas of Java. Besides the use of biomass kerosene is used for cooking and and a minor share of the population uses LPG.

For more information see energypedia.


EnDev Indonesia focusses on minigrid installations utilising micro hydropower and photovoltaic technologies with the system capacity ranging from 5 to 400 kW. Installations are community operated and administered. Since the beginning of 2015, there are two key components implemented by the project: 1) basic technical quality assurance and sustainability enhancement through the “minigrid service package (MSP)” instrument, and 2) institutionalising rural electrification support to various local stakeholders. While the partner programmes cover MHP and PV hardware and installation expenses, EnDev Indonesia conducts MSP which comprises on-site (a) technical inspection, (b) baseline socio-economic survey, (c) training for village management team and (d) introduces a communication hotline system via short message service now known as “Energi Desa” (literally: Village Energy). Through this initiative, dozens of skilled inspectors are available locally to undertake MHP and PV technical inspection as well as community preparation. The key challenge lies in having local institutions ready and willing to take-over the tasks. With the lessons learnt and inspection guide (including updated technical checklists) compiled and refined, it is expected that MSP could start being implemented and/or adopted by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources for its next rural electrification programmes. EnDev Indonesia has to date supported 286 MHP and 222 PV minigrids constructed by various government and non-government programmes.

Over 286 individual MHPs and over 222 PV-mini grids have been supported. Due to the access to electricity from hydro power, expenditures for kerosene in the MHP villages decreased by 80%. Savings are used to pay the electricity services from MHP. A SMS-based gateway is installed facilitating communication for trouble shooting between EnDev and rural system operators.

A pilot project for Productive Use of Energy (53 rural business at 9 MHP sites with 112 appliances) lead to a 60% increase of electricity sales and increased availability of the MHPs up to 90%. Indonesia has built up its own MHP technology cluster in Bandung employing around 300 specialised engineers, technicians and project developers.

Pak Linggis' success story: The agro-mechanical engineer built his first water turbine in 1991. In this time he joined a non-governmental initiative supported by German development cooperation and built about ten Turbines in different villages. In 2007 he established his own workshop in Batang Uru. Pak Linggi won the Energy Self-Sufficiency Award of the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources in Indonesia in 2008. Meanwhile he is employing 25 staff members for manufacturing turbines and other MHP-equipment.

EnDev Indonesia’s activities regarding domestic biogas installations (primarily for cooking) are implemented by HIVOS through the Indonesian Domestic Biogas Program (IDBP / BIRU). The dissemination approach is based on the establishment of a market for domestic biogas installations and accessories. Therefore, activities focus to establish a well-informed demand side linked with a capable supply side that can provide quality products and after sales services at competitive prices. This includes providing trainings, conducting quality control, channeling investment incentives and monitoring. Investment incentives provided by EnDev IDBP will in part be replaced by sustainable local funding sources, including carbon emission financing. Biogas installations replaced the use of firewood to 85%, and to 15% of LPG. More than 7,095 biogas digesters have been installed so far for EnDev.

Further Information

The factsheet on this country project is available for download here.

To get more detailed information on EnDev Indonesia, you can visit the country project's homepage here or the Renewable Energy (RE) Map Indonesia website here where an overview of all project sites is available in an interactive map.